Roberto Matta (chilenisch, 1911 – 2002) war ein Zeichner und Maler des 20. Jahrhunderts, der für seine abstrakt expressionistischen und surrealistischen Werke ist. Er wurde am 11. November 1911 in Santiago, Chile als Roberto Sebastian Antonio Matta Echaurren geboren. Der Künstler studierte an der Päpstlichen katholischen Universität von Chile (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile) Architektur.

1933 ging Matta nach Paris, um für den bekannten Architekten Le Corbusier zu arbeiten. 1934 zog er weiter nach Madrid, wo er Bekanntschaft mit Salvador Dalí machte, der ihm empfahl, seine Zeichnungen André Breton zu zeigen. Breton und Dalí erklärten 1937 Matta zum Surrealisten. Matta hatte zwei Söhne, die ebenfalls Künstler sind, Gordon Matta-Clark und Sebastian Matta-Clark. Ein weiterer Sohn, Ramuntcho Matta, ist Komponist und seine Tochter, Federica Matta, ist Malerin.

1938 verließ Matta Europa und ging nach New York City. Zu dieser Zeit schuf er seine Ölgemälde, für die er besonders bekannt ist. Die folgenden zehn Jahre lebte der Künstler in den Vereinigten Staaten und schuf seine Inscape-Serie. Mattas Kontakt zu den Surrealisten brach aufgrund einer Meinungsverschiedenheit mit Arshile Gorky und dessen Familie, ab. Ihm wurde vorgeworfen, ein Verhältnis mit Gorkys Frau zu haben, weshalb Gorky Selbstmord beging. Er wurde deshalb von der Surrealismus-Bewegung ausgeschlossen. Zu dieser Zeit hatte der Künstler Matta sich allerdings längst seinen eigenen Namen gemacht.

Während der 1950er und 1960er Jahre lebte der Künstler in Südamerika und Europa. Seine halb-abstrakten Gemälde thematisierten politische Themen. Er malte häufig auf riesigen Leinwänden, so auch das Wandbild mit dem Titel The First Goal of the Chilean People für den damaligen chilenischen Präsidenten Salvador Allende. Zu Mattas bekanntesten Werken zählen The Road to Heaven, Storming Water River and Redness of Blue, Polimorfologia, Wound Interrogation and The Prophet, Dark Light, Lieberos, Nude Hiding in the Forest and Verginosamente und La Terre Uni. Matta starb am 23. November 2002 in Civitavecchia bei Rom.

Chronik

1911
Born in Santiago, Chile
1911
Born in Santiago, Chile
1928
Worked as an interior decorator, Santiago, Chile
1928
Worked as an interior decorator, Santiago, Chile
1929 – 1931
Studied architecture, Catholic University, Santiago, Chile
1929 – 1931
Studied architecture, Catholic University, Santiago, Chile
1933
Worked as a merchant seaman, Compagnie Transatlantique ship, to Europe
1933
Worked as a merchant seaman, Compagnie Transatlantique ship, to Europe
1934 – 1936
Worked as an architectural assistant, Le Corbusier studio, Paris, France
1934 – 1936
Worked as an architectural assistant, Le Corbusier studio, Paris, France
1937
On invitation by Andre Breton, joined the Surrealist group
1937
On invitation by Andre Breton, joined the Surrealist group
1934 – 1939
Lived in Paris, France
1934 – 1939
Lived in Paris, France
1937 – 1948
Member, with Federico Garcia Lorca, André Breton, Salvador Dali, Marcel Duchamp, Surrealist Group Paris, France
1937 – 1948
Member, with Federico Garcia Lorca, André Breton, Salvador Dali, Marcel Duchamp, Surrealist Group Paris, France
1939 – 1948
Lived in New York, USA
1939 – 1948
Lived in New York, USA
1950 – 1954
Lived in Rome, Italy
1950 – 1954
Lived in Rome, Italy
1955
Moved to Paris, France
1955
Moved to Paris, France
1962
Awarded Premio Marzotto, Rome, Italy
1962
Awarded Premio Marzotto, Rome, Italy
1966
Visiting Instructor at School of Art, Minneapolis, USA
1966
Visiting Instructor at School of Art, Minneapolis, USA
1968
President, Cultural Congress, Havana, Cuba
1968
President, Cultural Congress, Havana, Cuba
1972
Founder, Etrusculudens, Etruscan crafts artisan group
1972
Founder, Etrusculudens, Etruscan crafts artisan group
2002
Died: Civitavecchia, Italy
2002
Died: Civitavecchia, Italy

Ausstellungen

2012
Oils, sculptures and mixed media, Galleria d'Arte Maggiore, Bologna, Italy
2011
Matta100, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes Santiago, Chile
Matta 1911-2011, Museo de Bellas Artes de Bilbao, Spain
2009
Latitudes, Instituto Tomie Ohtake, Sao Paulo, Brazil
2008
Descubritorio Matta, Museo de Artes Visuales, Santiago, Chile (solo)
2007
Gravures: Roberto Matta, Galerie Renee Ziegler, Zurich, Switzerland (solo)
2004
Roberto Matta, Art Museum of the Americas, Washington, D.C. (solo)
Matta, Malingue, Paris, France (solo)
Matta: Making the Invisible Visible, McMullen Museum of Art, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, USA (solo)
2003
Matta 1938-1971, Galleria de'Foscherari, Bologna, Italy (solo)
2002
Matta in America: Paintings and Drawings of the 1940s, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, USA (solo)
2000
Matta: Oper Dal 1957 al 1993, Galleria Patrizia Poggi, Ravenna, Italy (solo)
Matta El Ano de los Tres 000, Fundacion Telefonica, Santiago, Chile (solo)
1999
Matta, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid, Spain (solo)
Borges Cultural Center, Buenos Aires, Argentina (solo)
1998
Matta: Surrealism and Beyond, Haggerty Museum of Art, Chicago, USA (solo)
1997
Roberto Matta: Paintings and Drawings 1937-1959, Galeria Lopez Quiroga, Mexico City, Mexico (solo)
Matta: Paintings and Drawings, Andre Emmerich Gallery, New York, USA (solo)
Matta: Re-generation, Boca Raton Museum of Art, USA (solo)
Maxwell Davidson Gallery, New York, USA (solo)
1995
Transparency in the Art of the 20th Century, Musee des Beaux-Arts Andre Malraux, Le Havre, France
1993
Matta: Engravings, Galeria Arte Actual, Santiago, Chile (solo)
Matta: Works from Chicago Collections, Arts Club of Chicago, Chicago, USA (solo)
1992
Crosscurrents of Modernism: Four Latin American Pioneers, Hirshorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C.
1991
matta Exhibition: One verse 11-11-11, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Santiago, Chile (solo)
1990
Matta: Drawings 1937-1946, Acquavella Contemporary Art, New York, USA (solo)
1989
Aspects of Modern Art in France, Galerie Daniel Malingue, Paris, France
1988
Matta: Drawings 1937-88, Museum Bochum, Germany (solo)
Italy Matta: Matta in Italy, Palazzo Venezia, Rome, Italy (solo)
Matta: The Early Years, Maxwell Davidson Gallery, New York, USA (solo)
1985
Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France (solo)
1984
The Logic of Hallucination [Drawings], Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, England (solo)
Artistic Collaboration in the Twentieth Century, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C.
1982
60 Works: The Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, USA
1981
Graphics, American Academy of Rome, Rome, Italy (solo)
A New Spirit in Painting, Royal Academy of Art, London, England
1978
Hom'mere (Etchings), Kettle's Yard Gallery, Cambridge University, Cambridge, USA (solo)
1976
Homage aux Pyrénées, Château de Castellnou, Castellnou, Spain (solo)
1975
A Totemic World, Paintings, Drawings, Sculpture, Andrew Crispo Gallery, New York, USA
Pastelli, L'Homme Descend du Signe, Galleria dell'Oca, Rome, Italy (solo)
Surrealism, National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo, Japan
1974
The Early Years: A Selection of Paintings and Drawings from the Years 1939 - 1957, Maxwell Davidson Gallery, New York, USA (solo)
1973
Sebastian Matta/dipinti, disegni e incisioni 1957 - 1973, Galleria Schubert, Milan, Italy (solo)
1971
In the Space of a Chilean Week, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Le Havre, France (solo)
1970
Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturebesitz, Berlin, Germany (solo)
1969
The Revolution is Architecture, Centre Culturel Municipal, Villeparisis, France (solo)
1968
Painting in France 1900 - 1967, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
1967
Galeria Latinoamerica, Casa de las Americas, Havana, Cuba (solo)
Matta, Being with, Saint Denis, France
1965
La Llave de los Campos, Galeria del Techo, Caracas, Venezuela
The Open Cube, Kunstmuseum, Lucerne, Switzerland (solo)
1963
Sebastian Matta: Mostra Antologica in Bologna, Museo Civico, Bologna, Italy (solo)
Within the Easel Convention: Sources of Abstract-Expressionism, The Fogg Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA
1962
Drawings, Pastels and Paintings, Allan Frumlin Gallery, Chicago, USA (solo)
Art Since 1950, American and International, Seattle World's Fair, Seattle, USA
1960
Sculptures by Matta, Galerie du Dragon, Paris, France (solo)
1959
15 Forms of Doubting, Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden (solo)
Retrospective, Stockholm, Sweden
1958
50 Ans d'Art Moderne, Palais International des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, Belgium
1957
Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA (solo)
1955
Matta of Chile, Pan American Union, Washington, D.C. (solo)
1952
Designs by Matta, Galerie Nina Dausset, Paris, France (solo)
L'Ouvre du XXe siècle, Peintures, Sculptures, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Paris, France
1951
Institute of Contemporary Arts, London, England (solo)
1948
40,000 Years of Modern Art, Institute of Contemporary Arts, London, England
1947
Matta (Preface by Andre Breton), Galerie René Drouin, Paris, France (solo)
Fifty-Eighth Annual Exhibition of American Paintings and Sculpture: Abstract and Surrealist American Art, The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, USA
1944
Twelve Contemporary Painters, Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA
1943
War and the Artist, Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York, USA
1942
Oils, Pencils and Paintings, Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York, USA (solo)
Peggy Guggenheim's Collection of Paintings, Sculpture, Collages, Drawings, Objects and Photography...Pioneer Art Movement, Art of this Century Gallery, New York, USA
1940
Tchelitchew, Matta and Walt Disney, Julien Levy Gallery, New York, USA
1938
Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme, Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Paris, France