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Victor Vasarely    (French/Hungarian, 1906-1997)

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1908 Born April 9 in Pécs, Hungary
1927 Began artistic training at private drawing school in Budapest.
1928 Joins the training center 'Mühely' (German 'workshop') which was run by Sándor Bortnyik and taught the ideas of the Bauhaus
1927 - 1929 Studies art at the Podolini-Volkmann Academy in Budapest.
1929 Enrols at Alexander Bortnyik’s Mühely Academy, widely recognised as the centre of Bauhaus studies in Budapest.
1930 Moves to Paris and becomes successful as a graphic designer
1930 - 1934 Moves to Paris, where he works as a graphic artist for various agencies, including Havas, and for the renowned printer Draeger. Begins his Zebra studies and engages in his first optical experiments. Marries Claire Spinner in 1931. Their first child André is born the same year. A second son, Jean-Pierre, is born in 1934.
1935 - 1945 Assembles an important body of graphic works , developing the aesthetic foundations for his plastic language. In 1944, inaugurates the Galerie Denise René in Paris with a solo-exhibition, and in 1945, participates for the first time in the Salon des Surindépendants.
1947 Develops understanding that geometric forms could evoke a sensory perception conveying new ideas of space, matter and energy.
1946 - 1950 Moves decidedly towards Constructivist and geometric abstract art, inspired by artists such as Malevitch, Moholy-Nagy and Walter Gropius. His vacations at Gordes and Belle-Isle from 1947 onwards play an important role in inspiring this shift away from figurative representation. Publishes his first edition of prints. Exhibits at the Salon des Surindépendants (1946), the Salon des Réalités Nouvelles (1947) and Galerie Denis René in Paris (1948).
1951 - 1959 Works predominantly in black and white. Develops and defines the visual elements of Op Art, the movement with which his name has become inextricably linked. In 1955 publishes his Yellow Manifesto and receives the Critics Award in Brussels and the Gold Medal at the Milan Triennial. Completes a series of murals for the University of Caracas in Venezuela, as well as several architectural integrations such as Hommage à Malevitch. Participates in numerous exhibitions such as Le Mouvement at the Galerie Denise René (1955), 50 Ans d’Art Moderne at the Palais International des Beaux-Arts in Brussels (1958), and Inaugural Selection at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York (1959). Has solo exhibitions at the Buenos Aires and Caracas museums of art (1958/59) and at Galerie Der Spiegel in Cologne (1959).
1960 - 1965 Receives the International Guggenheim Award in New York (1964), the Grand Prix de la Gravure in Ljubljana in Slovenia (1965) as well as the Grand Prize at the VIII Art Biennale of São Paolo (1965). Also awarded the Chevalier de l’Ordre des Arts et Lettres in Paris (1965). Participates in many group exhibitions, incuding Documenta III in Kassel, Germany (1964) and, most notably, The Responsive Eye at the Museum of Modern Art in New York (1965). Also has numerous solo exhibitions, including shows at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs in Paris (1963), the Pace Gallery in New York (1964), the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Brussels (1965) and the Kunsthalle in Bern in Switzerland (1965).
1955 - 1968 Exhibits work regularly at the documenta in Kassel
1966 - 1970 Completes several architectural projects, including one for the French pavilion at the World Expo in Montreal (1967). Also completes two films Les Multiples and Précinetisme. Interviews of the artist by Jean-Louis Ferrier are published. Awarded Chevalier de l’Ordre de la Légion d’Honneur (1970). Numerous group exhibitions, among them Lumière et Mouvement at the Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville in Paris (1967) and 10 Ans d’Art vivant, 1955-65 at the Fondation Maeght (1968) in Saint Paul-de-Vence in France, as well as solo exhibitions at the Sidney Janis Gallery in New York (1966 and 1968), Galerie Denise René in Paris (1969) and the Museum of Fine Arts in Budapest (1969).
1971 - 1975 Inauguration of the Vasarely Museum in Gordes in France (1971). Publishes the four volumes of Plasti-cité and receives the International Art Book Award for two of the volumes in 1971 and 1975. Solo exhibitions at the Galerie Denise René (1972) and Sidney Jannis Gallery (1972). Designs the set for the Racine Opera Bérenice, performed in Hungary.
1976 - 1982 Inauguration of the Vasarely Foundation in Aix-en-Provence (1976) and the Vasarely Museum in his hometown of Pécs (1978). Solo exhibitions at the Caracas Museum of Contemporary Art (1977) and the Phoenix Art Museum (1979). Creates 154 prints that are transported into space aboard the Soyuz 7 by a French-Soviet team of cosmonauts .
1987 Inauguration of second museum in Zichy Palace in Budapest
1983 - 1990 Named Honorary Citizen of the City of New York and delivers a series of lectures in the United States. In France, Vasarely is named Officier de l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (1985) and promoted to the rank of Grand Officier de l'Ordre du Mérite in France (1990). Inauguration of the Vasarely Museum at the Zichy Palace in Budapest (1987).
1997 Dies March 15 in Paris.

2013 Dynamo Un Siecle De Lumiere Et De Mouvement Dans L’art 1913-2013 - Galeries nationales du Grand Palais, Paris
Frühjahr - Sommer - 2013 Kunst aus dem 20. Jahrhundert - Galerie Neher GmbH & Co. KG, Essen
Vibrations - Des Moines Art Center, Des Moines, IA
Optical Spaces - Museum of Geometric and MADI Art, Dallas, TX
2012 Victor Vasarely - Galerie Lahumière, Paris
2011 Victor Vasarely - une rétrospective 1948 - 1975 - Galerie Lahumière, Paris
2010 Viktor Vazareli - Grafike i objekti - Museum Of Contemporary Art Vojvodina, Novi Sad
2009 Victor Vasarely - Mathematikum e.V., Gießen
Imagen Inestable - Galería Animal, Santiago
2008 Linie, Art Forum Ute Barth, Zurich
2007 Twin Bill, Oklahoma City Museum of Art, Oklahoma City, OK
2006 The Expanded Eye, Kunsthaus Zurich, Switzerland
2005 The Kinetic Eye: Optical and Kinetic Art, 1950-1975, 13 May – 25 September, Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Strasbourg, France
Victor Vasarely in black and white, Robert Sandelson, London, UK
2004 Victor Vasarely: Black and White paintings from 1950s, 16 October – 13 November 2004, Robert Miller Gallery, New York, NY
Victor Vasarely: Founder of Op Art, Naples Museum of Art, Naples, FL
Victor Vasarely – Parcours 1930-1980, La Fondation Demeures du Nord, Lille
2003 Victor Vasarely, Robert Sandelson, London
2001 Vasarely Inconnu, Palais Bénédictine, Fécamp
2000 Vasarely, Fundacion Juan March, Madrid, Spain
1998 Vasarely – Geometrie, Abstraktion, Rhythmus. Die Fünfziger Jahre, Ulmer Museum, Ulm
Vasarely – Erfinder der Op-Art, Wilhelm-Hack-Museum, Ludwigshafen, Kunstverein Wolfsburg and Joseph Albers Museum, Bottrop
1996 - 1997 Vasarely: Hommages, Musée Communal des Beaux-Arts, Charleroi and Fondation Vasarely, Aix-en-Provence
1995 Victor Vasarely – 50 Years of Creation, Musée Olympique, Lausanne
1992 Le Mouvement, Fondation Maeght, St-Paul-de-Vence
Retrospective, Kunstforum Vienna, Austria
1987 Vasarely, Esterhazy Castle, Eisenstadt
Victor Vasarely, Okresné Museum, Prague
1986 Vasarely, National Museum of Fine Arts, Algiers
Galerie der Stadt Esslingen am Neckar, Germany
1980 The Art Of Victor Vasarely, Midland Center of Arts, Midland, Michigan
1979 The Optic Art of Vasarely, Phoenix Art Museum, Phoenix, Arizona
1977 Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas
1975 Cultural Centre, Modena, Italy
1972 Exposition de sérigraphies et de multiples, Philadelphia Art Museum
Sidney Janis Gallery, New York
Galerie Denise René, Paris
1970 From Renoir to Vasarely, Salon d’Automne, Grand-Palais, Paris
1969 Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest, Hungary
Folklore Planétaire, Galerie Denis René, Paris
1968 Vasarely, Sidney Janis Gallery, New York
10 Ans d’Art Vivant, 1955-65, Fondation Maeght, St Paul-de-Vence, France
1967 Lumière et Mouvement, Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville, Paris
Multiples, Galerie Denise René, Paris
1966 Sidney Janis Gallery, New York
1965 The Responsive Eye, Museum of Modern Art, New York
Kunsthalle, Berne, Switzerland
1964 Documenta III, Kassel, Germany
Vasarely et l’Art Social, Académie des Beaux-Arts, Paris
Pace Gallery, New York
1963 L'Unite Plastique, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris
Taft Museum, Cincinatti
1959 Galerie Der Spiegel, Cologne
Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas
Inaugural Selection, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
1958 50 Ans d’Art Moderne, Palais International des Beaux-Arts,Brussels
Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires
1955 Palais de Beaux-Arts, Bruxelles; APIAW, Liege
Le Mouvement, Galerie Denise René, Paris
Galerie Der Spiegel, Cologne
1950 Galerie Arne Bruun Rasmussen, Copenhague
1948 Tendences de l’Art Abstrait, Galerie Denise René, Paris
1944 Galerie Denise René, Paris
1930 Galerie Kovacs Akos, Budapest
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